Facts About Diabetes

doctor with patient

Take the Facts About Diabetes quiz.

Test your knowledge about diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is defined as:

Diabetes mellitus is defined as an elevated blood sugar, which means too much sugar in your blood stream. Specifically, diabetes is diagnosed if you have a before breakfast (fasting) plasma glucose of 126 mg/dl or higher, and/or a plasma glucose of 200 mg/dl or higher after an oral glucose tolerance test.
Symptoms of Diabetes mellitus include:

All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is "All of the above". Symptoms of diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst and urination, fatigue, blurred vision, unexplained weight loss, and nausea and vomiting.
Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed if:

Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed when the fasting blood glucose is 126 mg/dl or higher.
The American Diabetes Association recommends the following blood glucose targets:

The ADA recommends targeting pre-meal plasma glucose levels of 70-130 mg/dl*, peak post-meal plasma glucose levels of less than 180 mg/dl, and an A1c of less than 7%. *The goals may be different in individuals treated with insulin or medications that cause the release of insulin from the pancreas. To minimize the risk of low blood sugars (hypoglycemia) in such individuals, many providers will recommend a pre-meal blood sugar (plasma glucose) target of 90-130 mg/dl and post meal blood sugar (plasma glucose) of less than 180 mg/dl.
There are many different causes of diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is defined as an elevated blood sugar (plasma glucose). There are many different causes of an elevated blood sugar, and therefore, of diabetes.
Different forms of diabetes include:

The correct answer is all of the above. The causes of diabetes mellitus range from the body's immune system attacking the insulin producing cells, to a combination of inadequate insulin production and tissue resistance to the action of insulin, to pancreatic injury, and multiple other causes
The most common form of diabetes is:

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and accounts for approximately 85% of cases world wide.
Type 1 diabetes:

All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is "All of the above": Type 1 diabetes is most frequently diagnosed in individuals of Caucasian ancestry; however, it can occur in any population. While diabetes is most frequently diagnosed in younger individuals, it can develop at any age. Type 1 diabetes is usually caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells (insulin producing cells). Naturally produced insulin is deficient or absent in people with diabetes, and the missing hormone has to be replaced with insulin therapy. Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of excess ketone production.
Stress hormones are:

The stress hormones are epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone. These hormones help the body cope with stress by increasing the production of glucose by the liver. Another name for the stress hormones is "glucose counter-regulatory" hormones. Examples of stressful situations include infection, pain, and emotional distress. Individuals treated with insulin or insulin-releasing pills may have a low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which is another form of stress.
Pre-diabetes is diagnosed when:

Pre-diabetes is diagnosed when the fasting or pre-meal blood sugar (plasma glucose) is between 100-125 mg/dl, and the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test result is between 140-200 mg/dl.
Type 2 diabetes:

All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is "All of the above". Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes worldwide. Type 2 diabetes has multiple causes. Some people with type 2 are very sensitive to insulin, some are resistant, some make a lot of natural insulin, and some make very little natural insulin. This wide range in insulin sensitivity and natural insulin production accounts for the broad range of response to therapy. Some individuals achieve blood sugar control just by following a diet and exercising, while other have to take pills or insulin. Type 2 diabetes tends to run in families, and 85% of diagnosed individuals will have a positive family history of diabetes.
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are:

All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is "All of the above". Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:
  • Older age
  • Being overweight
  • Inactivity
  • Being of a high risk ethnic group (Asian, African, Hispanic, or Native American ancestry)
  • Having a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Having a history of high blood pressure, high blood fats (high triglycerides and LDL)
  • A prior history of an elevated blood sugar
  • Being a women with a history of gestational diabetes or history of delivering large (over 9 lbs) babies
Your liver naturally produces sugar (glucose):

True! Your liver naturally produces sugar (glucose) in order to maintain glucose availability for the body. The liver produces the most glucose overnight and between meals. At mealtimes, the glucose in the blood stream is primarily coming from digested food, so very little sugar has to be produced by the liver.
Excess ketones only develop in type 1 diabetes:

False! Individuals with type 1 diabetes have no natural insulin and depend on insulin replacement therapy. If they don't receive insulin, or enough insulin replacement, they can have excessive levels of ketones. It is much less common, but type 2 diabetic individuals may also develop excess ketones, especially if they are very sick, stressed or treated with certain medications. Excess ketones develop when there is too little insulin in the blood stream and too much glucagon. Elevated epinephrine and cortisol also play a role in ketone development. Having excess ketones is a medical emergency and requires urgent medical care.

©2007-2017 Collective work Martha Nolte Kennedy,
The Regents of the University of California.
All rights reserved.