Diabetes Classification Table

diverse group of people

The medical causes of diabetes, divided into 4 major categories:

  • type 1
  • type 2
  • gestational diabetes
  • other
There are many medical causes of diabetes. Below is a table of medical conditions that may result in an elevated blood sugar and the diagnosis of diabetes. The list, which is divided into 4 major categories- type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other- is adapted from the american diabetes association.

Etiologic classification of diabetes mellitus –
based on American Diabetes Association criteria

  1. Type 1 diabetes (ß-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency)
    1. Immune mediated
    2. Idiopathic
  2. Type 2 diabetes (may range from predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominantly secretory defect with insulin resistance)
  3. Other specific types
    1. Genetic defects of ß-cell function
      1. Chromosome 12, HNF-1∝ (MODY3)
      2. Chromosome 7, glucokinase (MODY2)
      3. Chromosome 20, HNF-4 (MODY1)
      4. Chromosome 13, insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1; MODY4)
      5. Chromosome 17, HNF-1ß (MODY5)
      6. Chromosome 2, NeuroD1 (MODY6)
      7. Mitochondrial DNA
      8. Others
    2. Genetic defects in insulin action
      1. Type A insulin resistance
      2. Leprechaunism
      3. Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome
      4. Lipoatrophic diabetes
      5. Others
    3. Diseases of the exocrine pancreas
      1. Pancreatitis
      2. Trauma/pancreatectomy
      3. Neoplasia
      4. Cystic fibrosis
      5. Hemochromatosis
      6. Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy
      7. Others
    4. Endocrinopathies
      1. Acromegaly
      2. Cushing’s syndrome
      3. Glucagonoma
      4. Pheochromocytoma
      5. Hyperthyroidism
      6. Somatostatinoma
      7. Aldosteronoma
      8. Others
    5. Drug- or chemical-induced
      1. Vacor
      2. Pentamidine
      3. Nicotinic acid
      4. Glucocorticoids
      5. Thyroid hormone
      6. Diazoxide
      7. ß-adrenergic agonists
      8. Thiazides
      9. Dilantin
      10. ∝-Interferon
      11. Others
    6. Infections
      1. Congenital rubella
      2. Cytomegalovirus
      3. Others
    7. Uncommon forms of immune-mediated diabetes
      1. “Stiff-man” syndrome
      2. Anti–insulin receptor antibodies
      3. Others
    8. Other genetic syndromes sometimes associated with diabetes
      1. Down’s syndrome
      2. Klinefelter’s syndrome
      3. Turner’s syndrome
      4. Wolfram’s syndrome
      5. Friedreich’s ataxia
      6. Huntington’s chorea
      7. Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome
      8. Myotonic dystrophy
      9. Porphyria
      10. Prader-Willi syndrome
      11. Others
  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

Patients with any form of diabetes may require insulin treatment at some stage of their disease. The use of insulin does not, of itself, classify the diabetes.

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